What is carbon sequestration?
Carbon sequestration is a technique to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by storing carbon dioxide (CO2) in natural or artificial reservoirs. It aims to mitigate the effects of climate change by limiting the amount of CO2 in the atmosphere.
Carbon sequestration can be achieved in a number of ways, including storing CO2 in oceans, soils, forests or rocks. It can also be achieved through specific technologies, such as carbon capture and storage (CCS), which involves capturing the CO2 emitted by industries and then storing it in underground reservoirs.
Carbon sequestration aims to help reduce greenhouse gas emissions, which are responsible for global warming. It can be used to reduce emissions from a variety of sources, such as power plants, industries and transport.
The different types of carbon sequestration :
The oceans are the largest natural reservoir of carbon, absorbing about 25% of man-made CO2 emissions. Marine carbon sequestration involves injecting CO2 directly into the ocean, where it dissolves and is permanently stored. However, this technique poses risks to marine wildlife and the ocean ecosystem, and requires extensive study before being implemented on a large scale.
Forest carbon sequestration aims to increase the carbon storage capacity of forests by planting new forests or conserving and sustainably managing existing forests. Forests are carbon "sinks", as they absorb CO2 from the atmosphere through photosynthesis and store it in the form of biomass (trees, leaves, branches, etc.) and soil. However, this technique can be costly and difficult to implement on a large scale, and requires sustainable forest management to be effective in the long term.
Soil carbon sequestration involves storing CO2 in soils by changing agricultural practices and using soil amendments such as straw and organic waste. Soils are also carbon reservoirs, and can store up to three times their weight in carbon as organic matter. However, carbon sequestration in soils can be limited by the quality of the soil and the agricultural practices used, and can be disrupted by events such as deforestation or forest fires.
Rock carbon sequestration involves injecting CO2 into deep geological formations, such as saline aquifers, where it is permanently stored. This technique has the potential to store significant amounts of CO2, but requires extensive research and expensive infrastructure to be implemented safely and effectively.
Finally, carbon capture and storage (CCS) is a specific carbon sequestration technique that aims to capture CO2 emitted by power plants and industries, before storing it in underground reservoirs. CCS can be used to reduce emissions from various industrial sources, but it requires expensive and complex infrastructure, and is not yet widely used on a large scale.